Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Charles Darwin Essays - Charles Darwin, Fellows Of The Royal Society Charles Darwin In 1859 when Charles Darwin published his book "The Origin of Species", it caused much controversy between the scientific and religious worlds. It caused many people to question their belief in the teaching of the Bible. The strongly held belief that the Bible was the literal truth clashed with the Darwin theory. Some people rejected and scorned Darwin while others tried to reevaluate their beliefs. Darwin theorized that species evolved from other species. The belief that God directly created man seemed unlikely to mix with Darwin's theory. Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England February 12, 1809. He had his preliminary schooling at Shrewsbury. He was then sent in 1825 to the University of Edinburgh where he entered a distinguished program for medicine. He did not like the program. From 1828 to 1831 he transferred to Cambridge to prepare for the ministry. Sciences were not included in University studies so he had no training in that area. Personal contacts with scientists gave him an informal science education. After Cambridge he became a naturalist on a government sponsored map making trip. Darwin collected data and specimens during this 5 year trip. It was during the trip that he also developed the first ideas about species evolving. After the trip he married and moved to Down, England where he lived the rest of his life. Darwin did research and corresponded his home. He had gained respect in the field of Natural Science from his research made during his 5 year trip. During that trip he gathered evidence that the species was mutable. As a student he had accepted fundamentalist beliefs. As time passed he was deeply impressed by Charles Lyell's theory that natural change occurred gradually in species. From his studies Darwin developed his Natural Selection Theory, which he announced in 1858. In 1859 his book "The Origin of the Species by Natural Selection", was published. The book advanced the theory and caused controversy. He wrote several other books during his lifetime but none was as significant as "Origin of the Species". Darwin died after many years of chronic illness in his home in Down, England on April 19, 1882. The theory of evolution is not contradicted by the Catholic Church today. The Church does not look at the Bible as literal truth. The Church encourages the study of science. In response to the controversy caused by Darwinism and questions about the Bible Pope Leo the XII started a commission to apply new methods of archaeology and linguistics to biblical study. This study which went on for many years now helps the Church to understand and accept how evolution can be a scientific fact and God can still have created man. The theory of evolution is scientific, although there is still debate about the theory, a religious belief does not have to be the deciding factor for a Catholic. The Church encourages Catholics to study and examine scientific possibilities without fear of contradicting their faith. As a Catholic and a student I can see the importance of Darwin's studies in my life. Darwin's theory encouraged a great deal of biological research. This research was meant to prove or disprove his theory. In the end much of the research furthered our knowledge of biology. This theory explained that species well adapted to their particular living space developed from an accumulation of adaptations. The science of Genetics which is so important today was able to explain these adaptations. I also understand that change had to occur in the way the church looked at creation for this growth in knowledge to be accepted. God did not have to be rejected because of a change in our thought about creation. I understand that God can lead us to intellectual growth that will help us. We must remember where the knowledge comes from and look for His guidance. Charles Darwin's curiosity and research about the world around him helped him to develop his theory
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Tips for Winning Writing Contests Entering writing contests is great practice for writing, editing, revising and submitting your work, whether it is creative nonfiction or flash or longer fiction. The more awards you can obtain, the better it looks on your resume and makes you more attractive when applying for specific writing gigs and searching for a literary agent. Having won several different awards for my work over the years, Ive developed three tips for finding success with writing contests. Select the right contest for your work. There are so many contests out there, its important to do your research when deciding where to submit your work. Are you familiar with the publication or website offering the contest? Are the entry fees reasonable? I personally dont enter contests where the entry fee is more than $30, but thats a personal choice. Research previous winning stories to get a feel for what the contest is looking for. When I entered the Writers Digest Popular Fiction Awards last year, I looked over the categories and decided I wanted to use the contest as an opportunity to create two new short stories- one a suspense/thriller and one in the young adult category. I read back through several years winners for the suspense category and then got to work. Admittedly, I didnt research the young adult category quite as much. My story, The Polaroid, won first place in the 2017 Popular Fiction Awards suspense category. The young adult story didnt go anywhere, so I filed it away. Make your submission unique. Follow the guidelines for stories to the letter. If theres a prompt, follow it and stay within the requested word count. Think of a unique angle for a submission. As a judge for the WOW! Women on Writing quarterly flash fiction contest, I read through a lot of preliminary submissions. One subject we see a lot are stories that focus on dementia and Alzheimers Disease or the disintegration of marriages. So, if you are going to write about those topics, take unique angles on them, such as sharing the story from the perspective of a neighbor or from the mind of the person with the illness, or giving a failing marriage short story a twist ending the reader isnt expecting. Use contests to find a home for work youve already produced. As I mentioned earlier, I had written a young adult story for the WD Popular Fiction Awards that didnt place. A few months later I came across another writing contest opportunity from the Womens National Book Association. I thought the story, titled The Name Youre Not Supposed to Call Women, would be a good fit for this particular contest. I read through a few of the previous winners and submitted my entry. Within two months I received notification that the story won Honorable Mention in the 2018 WNBA Writing Contest Young Adult Category. I was glad that I hadnt let the story languish and was able to find it a home in this particular contest, giving me another great credit for my resume. Writing short stories has helped breathe new life into my writing. There are also plenty of creative nonfiction contests out there, including one that WOW! Women on Writing holds each quarter. Try your hand at submitting using these tips and you may be surprised Links: WOW! Quarterly Flash Fiction Contest http://wow-womenonwriting.com/contest.php#FlashFictionContestÃ WOW! Quarterly Creative Nonfiction Essay Contest http://wow-womenonwriting.com/contest.php#EssayContest
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Multiple questions - Essay Example I discovered later that the battery was an Eveready rechargeable and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a battery charger at home. If only I have read the book before the incident, I could be more specific and relate well with the store owner. 2. Just last month I visited a very close friend who is also our neighbor. I bought a pizza and I invited her family to share with the food. When we opened the pizza box all were happy except my friend. She told me that she was happy and fine but her facial expression showed sheÃ¢â¬â¢s disgusted. She went upstairs and later reappeared. Later on, I learned from her mother that she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t eat veggies like mushrooms, green peppers and red onions, and she has an allergy towards black olives. I also learned that she told her to go downstairs. Nevertheless we altogether enjoyed the time. I should have been more alert; when she looked disgusted it only means one thingÃ¢â¬âshe doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like it. Indeed, it pays to be more conscious and aware. In the future, I will know first persons whom I will have an interpersonal relationship with. 3. Since I am an African-American, I carry a remnant of African cultural heritage. Although the influence of America is great these days, I still think like an African, talk like an African-American and I value our kind of music, behaviors and even tradition. I still value our extended families. Of course, since I also carry an American cultural lineage, I also cherish things like the Hollywood. Ultimately, my preferences have shaped the kind of culture IÃ¢â¬â¢m living with. Culture is important in interpersonal communication since it can effectively send the message across without barriers. More significant is to know the culture of the person weÃ¢â¬â¢re interacting with to attain a resolution and understanding. Since we had a bitter history of racial discrimination, I have been very assertive with my rights and our equal privileges with the Whites. Sometimes, I get unconsciously aggressive to defend
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Irish Taxation - Assignment Example This paper assesses the extent to which these tax measures are equitable. It also argues the ease of implementation of the measures. In addition, it discusses the societal and economic impact of the tax measures on the growth and development of Ireland. The budget states that the rates of tax for tobacco products will increase to 40 cents. This is inclusive of VAT and applies to the packet that has 20 cigarettes. The increase is in the popular category of prices and the VAT on other tobacco products to increase on a pro rata basis. The packet that weighs 25 grams will have an increase of 20 cents that is an inclusive figure of the VAT. This measure will increase the minimum rate of the Tobacco Products Rate. This tax measure has significant implications to the Irish government. The increase in tobacco taxes is an effective measure to ensure the reduction of tobacco use. This results in a decrease of the number of deaths due to the excessive use of tobacco (Cremins & Brien, 2005). From this perspective, the increase in taxes could be an equitable measure for the societal concerns. This is also evident in that the Irish government would use the revenues from such taxation to increase awareness of the negative effects of excessive use of tobacco. However, the increase is not an equitable measure of the tobacco users. It could lead to an increase in the use of illicit tobacco products due to the inability to afford legit products. The implementation of the tax measures would depend on the effectiveness of the taxation systems in Ireland. The market for the products could be hesitant to buy the products, as they will be expensive. This would decrease the revenue accrued from the purchase of the products. The country needs to develop comprehensive taxation systems that monitor the rates of tobacco taxation from the manufacturer to the retailer. The Irish government could have challenges in the
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Path of the Stars Essay The song Ã¢â¬Å"StarsÃ¢â¬ from the musicale Les Miserables is sung by Inspector Javert near the end of Act I when he realized that it was Jean Valjean whom he had helped escape from the group of Thenardier. Inspector Javert is a rather curious character. A good characterization of him is well laid-out in the novel. However, in the musicale version, only snippets of JavertÃ¢â¬â¢s personality can be gleamed when observed carefully. Ã¢â¬Å"StarsÃ¢â¬ may not be one of the internationally renowned songs from musicale like Ã¢â¬Å"I Dreamed a DreamÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"On My OwnÃ¢â¬ , but it offers a good insight into the way Inspector Javert sees himself as a law-enforcement agent, law-breakers like Jean Valjean, and his obsession, bordering on madness, in the pursuit of law-breakers, especially Jean Valjean, to face justice. JavertÃ¢â¬â¢s sees himself as one of the stars, Ã¢â¬Å"filling the darkness with order and light Ã¢â¬ ¦sentinels, silent and sure, keeping watch in the night. Ã¢â¬ He sees himself as an unobtrusive individual in society keeping the order and standing as a vanguard of peace always on the watch. He is always there to maintain the peace in society. He believes that each of us, like the stars, knows his proper place and function in society and those who stray from their fixed and sure paths, law-breakers and fugitives, Ã¢â¬Å"must pay the priceÃ¢â¬ and face justice. Law-breakers are stars that have lost their way, men who have deviated from their roles in society. They flee in the dark for they are out of graces in the eyes of God, according to Javert. As a sacred duty, Javert has taken it into himself, swearing by the stars, that he would not rest until these fugitives are brought to face justice. This duty is his role in society; his course and aim in the skies as one of the stars, Ã¢â¬Å"and so it must be, for so it is written. Ã¢â¬ If we follow JavertÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy that all men in society are but stars with fixed path in the skies and those stars that fall from their paths Ã¢â¬Å"fall in flame,Ã¢â¬ this same philosophy gives us an idea of how hard Javert could be even to himself. If and when Javert, as a star in the sky, deviates from his fixed path he, as well, must pay the price. This insight into the thinking of JavertÃ¢â¬â¢s gives as a dark foreboding of what may happen in case he fails in his pursuit of Jean Valjean (as the case would be in Act II). Javert may not be one of the most amiable characters in the musicale Les Miserables but he gives us a good picture of a segment of our society today. People who tend to be fanatical and rigid in their views are epitomized by Javert. I am not a good authority to pass judgment on people like Javert. To some extents I agree with Javert that each of us has a role in society and when we falter we should pay the consequences. But I do not agree in the rigid application of justice as espoused by Javert. I believe that when a person commits a wrong we must temper our judgment by hearing out the reasons of the offender, assuming good-naturedly that he committed such offense unintentionally. I believe in justice with compassion. Justice, after all, has always been depicted as a lady blindfolded so that she may hear and weight with her heart the arguments laid before her.
Friday, November 15, 2019
If much of contemporary literary theory emphasizes the cultural production of class, race, and gender in American fiction, contemporary fiction that utilizes the resources of narrative minimalism to explore issues of cultural division - fiction by such writers as Raymond Carver, Toni Morrison, Susan Minot, and Russell Banks - increasingly provides the context for critical debate. The refusal to elaborate plot or to use plot to suggest a narrator who controls interpretation, becomes itself a strategy that allows the reader to observe clearly the boundaries between the story's minimal plot and the way the socially produced narratives invoked by the story enforce cultural division. If we conceive of narrative as the establishment, for the reader, of a network of expectations within a frame of contingency, then perhaps no expectation is more fundamental than that of intelligible action@ the progression of story through chronological time, which we commonly refer to as plot. In a world w here the possibilities of plot express unattainable desires on the part of a narrative's characters, however, the reader's desire for a resolution of plot into meaning is thwarted, and the resultant anxiety the reader feels underscores his or her complicity with the frustrations and incoherencies of the characters, lives. These incoherencies resist sentimental assimilation into the reader's aesthetic imagination. The resultant daydreams and wish-fulfilling fantasies display, as Fredric Jameson argues, the otherwise inconceivable link between history and desire (182). Russell Banks's Black Man and White Woman in Dark Green Rowboat" presents precisely such an evasive narrative, one whose very evasion establishes a dialogic relationship between the reader and a cast of characters whose lives display the wreckage of the larger cultural narratives that marginalize them. In effect, Banks's minimalism accentuates the missing cultural narratives that have written the characters into th e margins. "Black Man and White Woman" does, of course, present things that happen. The story opens with an apparently random variety of people who live in a trailerpark commencing their days. The reader is not immediately aware that the black man and the white woman are the focus of the story. They gradually emerge from the narrative background, and the story follows them as they row onto the lake, converse laconically, and row home. The sense of nothing happening is created in the context of their desire, both their physical desire for each other and their desire to construct plots that might provide a meaningful structure to their lives.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Your roommate is about to submit a scope statement for a spring concert sponsored by the entertainment council at Western Evergreen State University (WESU). WESU is a residential university with over 22,000 students. This will be the first time in six years since WESU sponsored a spring concert. The entertainment council has budgeted $40,000 for the project. The event is to occur on June 5th. Since your roommate knows you are taking a class on project management she has asked you to review her scope statement and make suggestions for improvement. She considers the concert a resume-building experience and wants to be as professional as possible. Below is a draft of her scope statement. What suggestions would you make and why? WESU Spring Music Concert Project Objective To organize and deliver a 6-hour music concert by June 5th at cost to not exceed $40,000. Deliverables Ã¢â¬ ¢Concert security Ã¢â¬ ¢Contact local newspapers and radio stations Ã¢â¬ ¢Separate beer garden Ã¢â¬ ¢Six hours of musical entertainment Ã¢â¬ ¢Design a commemorative concert t-shirt Ã¢â¬ ¢Local sponsors Ã¢â¬ ¢Food venues Ã¢â¬ ¢Event insurance Ã¢â¬ ¢Safe environment Milestones 1.Secure all permissions and approvals 2.Sign big-name artist 3.Contact secondary artists 4.Secure vendor contracts 5.Advertising campaign 6.Plan set-up 7.Concert 8.Clean-up Technical Requirements 1.Professional sound stage and system 2.At least five performing acts 3.Restroom facilities 4.Parking 5.Compliance with WESU and city requirements/ordinances Limits and Exclusions Ã¢â¬ ¢Seating capacity for 8,000 students. Ã¢â¬ ¢Performers are responsible for travel arrangement to and from WESU. Ã¢â¬ ¢Performers must provide own liability insurance. Ã¢â¬ ¢Performers and security personnel will be provided lunch and dinner on the day of the concert. Ã¢â¬ ¢Vendors contribute 25 percent of sales to concert fund Ã¢â¬ ¢Concert must be over at 12:15 A.M.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Obesity is a growing problem, and it is time for parents to step up to the plate and take responsibility for child obesity. Daniel Weintraub uses an emotional appeal, the article Ã¢â¬Å"The Battle Against Fast Food begins in the HomeÃ¢â¬ , to mandate parents to take responsibility to protect their children against obesity. He states that even though the fast-food companies and the government contribute and influence childhood obesity, ultimately it is the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility for obesity in their children.He provides several good points showing how parents are the ones to take the blame for the increasing problem. I believe that parents are indeed responsible for child obesity. Weintraub makes several good points on how parents should take responsibility and avoid obesity in their children. He does this by commanding parents to teach their children good habits, especially good, healthy eating and exercise habits. Also, he states that parents should protect children agains t bad things.In this case, fast-food is considered a bad thing since it does not only make children obese but causes a variety of medical conditions as well, so parents need to step up and protect their children against fast-food. Lastly, he believes that parents need to take responsibility since they are in the best position to educate their children. According to Daniel Wientraub, Ã¢â¬Å"It is parentsÃ¢â¬ânot the government, not the fast-food companies, not the video-game manufacturesÃ¢â¬âare in the best position to fight the epidemic of overweight children. As you can see Weintraub believes that there is no one to blame for childhood obesity but the parents. Weintraub makes several good points, which induces parents to take responsibility and action for the matter. Even though Weintraub makes a good argument, he has a few weak points, because his opinions are too simple when there is more to it than what he presents. For example, Weintraub does not provide any sort of stati stics, facts, or references. Also, you could argue that teachers, not parents, are in the best position to teach their children since they are well educated in the field of health and nutrition.After all, teachers are required to teach health class in school. Lastly, the whole article is just an emotional appeal in which Weintraub goes to the extremes and exaggerates. Weintraub says, Ã¢â¬Å"We have laws against leaving a loaded weapon where their children can find it and use it to hurt themselves or others. But no one seems to want to tell parents that they need to protect their children from unhealthy foods and from sloth. Ã¢â¬ Clearly, he exaggerates because it is almost absurd to compare the dangers of a firearm to the dangers of a french-fry.Overall, I agree with Weintraub and believe that parents are the ones responsible for childhood obesity. First of all, parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ poor eating habits have a great influence in child obesity. Parents need to educate themselves in the n utrition field, to be able to offer a good, healthy diet and correct portion sizes to their children. Secondly, the lack of discipline by parents also contributes to obesity in their children. Parents are easily manipulated by their children, and as a result children get what they want.Parents need to make their children get some sort of exercise as well. Lastly, parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ economic issues might lead them to buy fast-food, but fast-food is not as cheap as it seems. When you add up all the numbers it is inevitable to notice that the difference between fast-food and home cooked meals is minimum. According to a Yale survey, seventy percent of the cause to the rise in childhood obesity rests with the parents. As you can see, statistics have shown that parents are the responsible ones for obesity in children.Evidently obesity among children is a huge, dangerous problem, which parents need to take action of and help their children. It is a must for parents to teach their children abo ut proper eating habits. Disciple also influences a childÃ¢â¬â¢s obesity and parents need to get a bit strict with their children. Lastly, economic issues should not lead parents to buy fast-food because it is not that cheap and very unhealthy. I believe it is time to stop blaming others. Parents need to get well educated, so they can provide good eating habits and decrease the growing problem of obesity in children.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Uranium Element Facts and Properties Uranium is an element well-known for its radioactivity. Here are a collection of facts about the chemical and physical properties of this metal. UraniumÃ Basic Facts Atomic Number: 92 Uranium Atomic Symbol: U Atomic Weight: 238.0289 Electron Configuration: [Rn]7s25f36d1 Word Origin: Named after the planet Uranus Isotopes Uranium has sixteen isotopes. All of the isotopes are radioactive. Naturally-occurring uranium contains approximately 99.28305 by weight U-238, 0.7110% U-235, and 0.0054% U-234. The percentage weight of U-235 in natural uranium depends on its source and may vary by as much as 0.1%. Uranium Properties Uranium generally has a valence of 6 or 4. Uranium is a heavy, lustrous, silvery-white metal, capable of taking a high polish. It exhibits three crystallographic modifications: alpha, beta, and gamma. It is a bit softer than steel; not hard enough to scratch glass. It is malleable, ductile, and slightly paramagnetic. When exposed to air, uranium metal becomes coated with a layer of oxide. Acids will dissolve the metal, but it is not affected by alkalis. Finely divided uranium metal is attached by cold water and is pyrophoric. Crystals of uranium nitrate are triboluminescent. Uranium and its (uranyl) compounds are highly toxic, both chemically and radiologically. Uranium Uses Uranium is of great importance as a nuclear fuel. Nuclear fuels are used to generate electrical power, to make isotopes, and to make weapons. Much of the internal heat of the earth is thought to be due to the presence of uranium and thorium. Uranium-238, with a half-life of 4.51 x 109 years, is used to estimate the age of igneous rocks. Uranium may be used to harden and strengthen steel. Uranium is used in inertial guidance devices, in gyro compasses, as counterweights for aircraft control surfaces, as ballast for missile reentry vehicles, for shielding, and for x-ray targets. The nitrate may be used as a photographic toner. The acetate is used in analytical chemistry. The natural presence of uranium in soils may be indicative of the presence of radon and its daughters. Uranium salts have been used for producing yellow vaseline glass and ceramic glazes. Sources Uranium occurs in minerals including pitchblende, carnotite, cleveite, autunite, uraninite, uranophane, and torbernite. It is also found in phosphate rock, lignite, and monazite sands. Radium is always associated with uranium ores. Uranium can be prepared by reducing uranium halides with alkali or alkaline earth metals or by reducing uranium oxides by calcium, carbon, or aluminum at elevated temperatures. The metal can be produced through electrolysis of KUF5 or UF4, dissolved in a molten mixture of CaCl2 and NaCl. High-purity uranium can be prepared by the thermal decomposition of uranium halides on a hot filament. Element Classification: Radioactive Rare Earth Element (Actinide Series) Discovery: Martin Klaproth 1789 (Germany), Peligot 1841 Uranium Physical Data Density (g/cc): 19.05 Melting Point (Ã °K): 1405.5 Boiling Point (Ã °K): 4018 Appearance: Silvery-white, dense, ductile and malleable, radioactive metal Atomic Radius (pm): 138 Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 12.5 Covalent Radius (pm): 142 Ionic Radius: 80 (6e) 97 (4e) Specific Heat (20Ã °C J/g mol): 0.115 Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 12.6 Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 417 Pauling Negativity Number: 1.38 First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 686.4 Oxidation States: 6, 5, 4, 3 Lattice Structure: Orthorhombic Lattice Constant (Ãâ¦): 2.850 Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Electrical Resistivity (0Ã °C): 0.280 Ã µÃ ©Ã ·m Thermal Conductivity (300 K): 27.5 WÃ ·mÃ¢Ëâ1Ã ·KÃ¢Ëâ1 Thermal Expansion (25Ã °C): 13.9 Ã µmÃ ·mÃ¢Ëâ1Ã ·KÃ¢Ëâ1 Speed of Sound (thin rod) (20Ã °C): 3155 m/s Youngs Modulus: 208 GPa Shear Modulus: 111 GPa Bulk Modulus: 100 GPa Poisson Ratio: 0.23 CAS Registry Number: 7440-61-1
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
How To Make a Ketchup Packet Cartesian Diver Place a ketchup packet in a bottle of water and make it rise and fall at your command, as if by magic. Of course, the magic involves some basic science. Heres how to do the diving ketchup trick and how it works. Diving Ketchup Magic Trick Materials Plastic bottleKetchup packet from a fast food restaurantWater Perform the Diving Ketchup Magic Trick Drop the ketchup packet into the bottle.Seal the lid of the bottle.Fill the bottle with water. The ketchup packet should float somewhere in the middle of the bottle. If it sinks, either try using a different packet (the size of the air bubble inside the ketchup packet varies slightly) or else dump out the water and ketchup, bend the packet slightly so that it can hold an air bubble when you fill the bottle again, and refill the bottle. My packet was heavy, so I trapped an air bubble on the packet and tapped the bottle with a fingernail until I knocked off just enough air bubbles to get the packet to sit in the middle of the bottle.Squeeze the bottle to cause the ketchup packet to sink.Relax your grip on the bottle to cause the packet to float. With a little practice, you can make it appear that you arent squeezing the bottle. If you are performing this demonstration as a magic trick you can say you are using the power of your mind to move the ketchup. Pretend to be concentrating very hard, using your incredible powers of telekinesis. How the Diving Ketchup Magic Trick Works An air bubble is trapped inside a ketchup packet when it is sealed at the factory. If the bubble is big enough, it makes the packet float in water. When you squeeze the bottle, the water wont compress but the air bubble inside the ketchup packet is squeezed and becomes smaller. The size of the packet is reduced, but its mass remains unchanged. Density is mass per volume, so squeezing the bottle increases the density of the ketchup packet. When the density of the packet is more than the density of the water the packet will sink. When you release the pressure on the bottle the air bubble expands and the ketchup packet rises.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Causes of the Cold War - Essay Example It is not surprising that Walsh (2001) notes that most of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s major wars were fought during this time. In this essay, focus is placed on the Cold War as a 20th century that had several causative components including ideological, security, and personality. The various means by which ideology, security needs and personality caused the Cold War are analyzed with emphasis on how these causes brought about a state of satisfaction for the parties involved in the war. Ideological Causes of the Cold War In the totality of it, Walsh (2001) describes the Cold War as an ideological war between the United States and the USSR. This is because in his opinion, the most predominant factor that would bring about the war was ideological differences and mutual mistrust. Facts have it that the two major ideological philosophies that caused the war was capitalism against communism. Historians and government reviewers from who Walsh (2001) made reference to in his book have outlined that ca pitalism and communism are the two most contrasting political ideologies. Because of the differences, there was generally suspicion and mistrust between the two major parties identified as United States and USSR. This is because whereas capitalism gives credence to private ownership, communism gives emphasis to government controlled ownership of property. The need for the West, led by the United States to stop the possible spread of communism therefore had to take a unilateral decision backed by the application of brutal military forces to stop the situation. Security Needs and the Cold War In StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s speech of 1941, Walsh (2001) identifies a sense of urgency that was surrounding security for the USSR. The preceding incident that will bring this situation about is three major wars that the USSR had suffered at the hands of other nations, predominantly from the West. Giving statistical antecedents to these warfare attacks, Walsh names the World War I, World War II and the Rus sian War as wars that exposed USSR to invasion, leading to the death of millions of Russians. In the estimation of Stalin, the best form to ensure security for state USSR was to ensure that there was less aggression on its Western border and that there were enough friendly allies with whom Russia would surround itself with. This led to the creation of the Iron Curtain, which was on the other hand considered to be a security threat in the eyes of the West, particularly United States. As a way of pulling down the Iron Curtain, more and more blood will be shed, and thus the Cold War. How Personality issues accounted for the Cold War Walsh (2001) notes that the Cult of Personality that was in place in North Korea, greatly accounting for the Korean War is attributable to the Cold War. This is generally because through the system of Personality Cult that was practiced predominately by North Korean leader Kim II Sung, national confrontation broke out between North and South Korea. As this confrontation degenerated into what would later become known as the Korean War, the United States took a firm stand to support South Korea in the Korean War. With the United Nations Security Council coming to back the defense that was thrown in South Korea, the United States would have a firmer ground to fuel the Korean War. Walsh (2001) however notes that the United States also had its personality
Friday, November 1, 2019
Space Elevator - Research Proposal Example It is a fixed structure as opposed to a vehicle which will be fuel hungry and will have limited capacity of locomotion between the body and the space. A typical space elevator will be a cable like structure extending from the earth's surface into the outer space. It's center of mass will coincide with the Geostationary Earth Orbit, which is at an altitude of 35,786 km. Locomotion will be facilitated by electromagnetic vehicles which will travel along the cables and will be effective in the movement of people, power and other material. (Audacious & Outrageous: Space Elevators) The Space Elevator has caught the fancy of the scientific fraternity all across the globe. As the race to become the builder of the world's first Space Elevator gets heated up, interesting facts emerge. Japanese scientists have gone on record proclaiming that they were in the process of researching the possibility of building a Space Elevator - capable of transporting cargo as well as tourists, for $ 11 Billion. (Ramadge and Schneider) A region off the west coast of Australia has been identified as an Earth Dock, a location perfect for building the base earth station. "The Indian Ocean off Western Australia has been identified as an ideal location for a 'space elevator'; a thin carbon nano tube connecting a barge to a space station, along which supplies could be carried up. Construction could draw on the WA oil industry's expertise in constructing offshore platforms, as well as its material resources. NASA is currently investigating the feasibility of the project." (qtd. in "Lost in Space' Setting a new direction for Australia's space science and industry sector", 27) The structural specifications of the Space Elevator include several parts like the base station, a cable, climbers, and a counterweight. Base stations, in almost all prototypes, are of two varieties - stationary and mobile. Ships and other vessels can serve as mobile base stations while buildings at higher altitudes can suffice as stationary base stations. Both have their own advantages and disadvantages - while it will be cheaper to operate a stationary base station, a mobile base station can be moved so as to avoid any natural calamity. The cables are perhaps the most important part of the setup. It is necessary to manufacture the cables out of a light yet sturdy material. To be economically viable it will be necessary to produce the material at a mass scale and at a viable price. Research has shown that Carbon nano tubes have the capacity to withstand tensile strength of 63 to 177 GPa and are pretty light, as because of the chemical structure of the carbon atoms ensure that there is free space in between the carbon atoms. Thorough research is necessary to produce carbon nano tubes which are stronger. Another point needs to be kept in mind while constructing a nano tube; it will have to bear its own weight along with the weight of the particles which will be transported. Climbers are basically the vessels which will move along the cable. Climbers again will have to be light and heat resistant - they will encounter atmospheric friction while moving up and down a cable. The most important part is the source of power for the climbers. Options like nuclear power, solar energy, laser power beaming are there to be explored. The counterweight is the object which will hold